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of Organic Molecules addresses the nature and importance of sigma
and pi bonds, hybridization, forces of attraction, solubility influences,
and classification of compounds.
The overlap that produces formation of sigma and pi bonds is described
in detail with visuals and animations designed to promote understanding.
The student is aided in determining when these sigma and pi bonds
are expected to be formed so they can easily predict these important
characteristics of organic molecules. Further, the unit describes
the proposed composition of single, double, and triple bonds, thus
allowing the student to make accurate predictions in this area,
The relationship between hybridization, electron geometry, and bond
angles is addressed, and students are guided in their predictions
of these factors using organic structures. Through all of this,
the Chemistry Professor is teaching: explaining and repeating these
important concepts that will form the basis of further organic chemistry
One of the important characteristics of organic molecules is what
forces are present that allow molecules to be attracted to one another.
The unit addresses interionic forces, hydrogen bonding, permanent
dipoles, and the very important London force or London dispersion
force, a form of van der Waals forces. These instantaneous, induced
dipoles are often new to the organic student and initially somewhat
perplexing to one who has learned ionic and covalent bonding in
a simpler form. The Chemistry Professor uses animations to describe
these induced dipoles and accompanies these animations with clear
explanations. The Chemistry Professor never tires of repeating explanations
Another of the characteristics of organic molecules and one that
students frequently meet in the laboratory is solubility of organic
structures in a variety of solvents. This unit addresses those factors
impacting solubility and does so using animation techniques. These
techniques help the student understand the importance and impact
of such factors as hydrogen bonding, permanent dipoles, and van
der Waals forces, as well as the dielectric constant of water.
The major classes or organic compounds are introduced here:
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers,
carboxylic acids, acid chlorides, esters, amines, amides, nitriles,
and several types of aromatics structures. The goal is to have students
recognize and remember these basic types of structures because reactions
and preparations of one particular class of compounds usually involve
other classes of organics. To this end, the key structure in each
is noted with appropriate examples to help the student remember
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