to Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry lesson is now available as an individual lesson
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to Organic Chemistry addresses the concept of organic chemistry
as it differs from the concepts of inorganic chemistry. To prepare
students to study the multitude of compounds produced by carbon,
the concept of isomers, both structural and geometric are introduced.
From this study of isomers, a pattern is presented that will guide
the student through the study of organic chemistry.
Electronic geometries play an important role in organic chemistry
as electron pushing and pulling directs the course of reactions.
An introduction to organic chemistry must include determination
of electron geometries and accompanying orbital hybridizations to
help the organic student acquire a perspective on the spatial arrangement
present in organic molecules. Using the computer’s ability
to present these topics in an animated fashion, the program guides
the students as they differentiate among these geometries and hybridizations.
In the section on Lewis dot theory as it specifically relates to
organic molecules, the student reviews the concept of single bonding,
multiple bonding, and non-bonding. The importance of lone pair electrons
and their location is discussed.
Bond polarity studies further enhance the spatial study of organic
molecules as the student applies knowledge of electronegativity
to direction of polarity. Bond polarity leads into determination
and assignment of formal charge as the organic student lays a background
for understanding the spatial concentration of charges, hence an
important part of any introduction to organic chemistry.
The concepts of the expanded structure (Lewis structure), condensed
structure, and line-angle structure are developed in the section
concerning writing organic structures. Students learn the advantages
and disadvantages of each and how to convert one form to the other.
The concept and fallacy of the “straight chain” is discovered.
In the section devoted to isomers, the program carefully guides
the student through the sometimes confusing concepts of structural
and geometric isomers. Students quickly discover the nature of organic
isomers as they experience four different compounds constructed
from the simple formula of C3H6O.
Empirical and molecular calculations play an important role in analysis
of organic compounds, particularly in conjunction with infrared
spectroscopy and HNMR spectroscopy, but are a subject commonly addressed
in inorganic chemistry. A review of those calculations is presented
here in this introduction to organic.
A section of this unit is devoted to a review of acid-base theories
and their relationships. This section begins with a review of the
Arhennius concept of acids and bases, often called the classical
concept. The limitations of the Arhennius concept are noted and
the Bronsted-Lowry theory is offered as a more expanded concept.
The section concludes with a study of the Lewis theory of acids
and bases, complete with explanation of why this is the most inclusive
and useful theory for students of organic chemistry.
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